Laura J. Martin, MD
It’s a question many women wonder about, especially if you’re thinking about planning a family and your 20s are but a distant memory.
How many more years of fertility might you have, and how much longer will it be before you start experiencing “the change?”
Here's what does -- and does not influence the age at when a woman reaches menopause.
There are a number of factors that affect a woman’s age at menopause, but one is more important than any other: the age her mother experienced menopause.
“Menopause is strongly genetically linked, so you’re very likely to fall within a few years either way of the age your mother was at menopause,” says Nanette Santoro, MD, director of the division of reproductive endocrinology and infertility at the University of Colorado-Denver School of Medicine and a member of the board of directors of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine.
This isn’t always true, of course. Some women reach menopause at an unusually early age -- before 45 or so -- with no known cause, which could be the result of an inherited issue or a one-time genetic mutation. “These can be random events, but can also be passed on," says Howard Zacur, MD, PhD, who directs the reproductive endocrinology and infertility division at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.
So if your mother reached menopause at 40, but her sisters and your grandmother were all around the average age of 50, it’s unclear whether you’ll follow her path or theirs.
But if most of the women in your family, your mother included, reach menopause early, late, or somewhere in the middle, you can eye your calendar with some degree of confidence.
Your mother's age at menopause is a key factor, but not the only one. Here are four others to consider:
Here are three things you might think would influence menopause age, but don’t:
There is no way to delay menopause; it can only be sped up, not slowed down, by external factors.
And there are some factors that are still unknowns. For instance, researchers are studying bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical used to make certain plastics, in relation to various cancers as well as the reproductive system and metabolic processes.
Could BPA exposure influence age at menopause? “My guess would be no, since the age of menopause hasn’t changed much over the years as we’ve been exposed to more of these environmental toxins, but research will be exploring the role of substances like BPA in ovarian function,” Santoro says.
Other than avoiding smoking, there’s probably not much you can do to influence the age at which you’ll reach menopause. But as you get closer to that time, it will be easier to predict more accurately when it will happen.
"If you’re over the age of 45 and skip at least three periods in a row, that tells us that you’re going to move on to menopause relatively soon," Santoro says. “But we’re still working on blood tests to see if we can predict this more accurately.”
SOURCES:Nanette Santoro, MD, director, division of reproductive endocrinology and infertility, the University of Colorado-Denver School of Medicine, Denver.Howard Zacur, MD, PhD, director, division of reproductive endocrinology and infertility, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore.Marcelle Cedars, MD, director, division of reproductive endocrinology, University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine, San Francisco.McDowell, M. Journal of Adolescent Health, March 2007; vol 40: pp 227-231.
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