WebMD Medical News
Daniel J. DeNoon
Louise Chang, MD
Oct. 25, 2012 -- Over-the-counter eyedrops and nose sprays contain powerful drugs that are poisonous in surprisingly small amounts if swallowed, the FDA warns.
Unwary parents often leave these products within easy reach of curious children. From 1997 through 2009, eyedrops injured more than 4,500 children under the age of 5 and nasal sprays injured more than 1,100, according to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC).
Injury reports show that children can easily open the products, which do not come in child-resistant packages.
The drugs are surprisingly powerful. Swallowing less than a fifth of a teaspoon can seriously harm a child, the FDA says.
The eyedrops in question soothe redness by causing blood vessels in the eye to constrict. Visine is a popular brand; there are many generic versions. Nose drops work in a similar way, tightening blood vessels in the nose. Afrin, Dristan, and Mucinex are popular brands, and there are many generic versions.
The products contain the active ingredients tetrahydrozoline, naphazoline, or oxymetazoline.
All three drugs are in the class of drugs called imidazolines. When placed in the eye or nose as directed, the drugs only affect that part of the body. But if swallowed, they quickly have effects throughout the body.
"Generally, symptoms can occur in as little as one hour, peaking at eight hours, and resolving after 12-36 hours," a CPSC briefing paper notes. "Even though the symptoms resolve in a relatively short amount of time, ingestion of imidazolines can result in severe life-threatening consequences, such as decreased breathing, decreased heart rate, and loss of consciousness that require hospitalization to ensure recovery."
The CPSC has proposed a new rule requiring child-resistant packaging for these products. That rule has yet to be finalized. Even when it's final, the rule will give manufacturers at least a year to comply. Meanwhile, many homes have at least one of the products in medicine cabinets.
To avoid accidental poisonings, the FDA says parents and caregivers should:
The FDA lists several specific products in its warning. Here's the list, which includes some but by no means all store and generic brands:
Products containing tetrahydrozoline
Products containing naphazoline
Products containing oxymetazoline
Ak-Con Ophthalmic Solution
12 Hour Nasal Decongestant Nasal Spray
Visine Advanced Relief
Napha Forte Ophthalmic Solution
Afrin Extra Moisturizing Nasal Spray
Naphazoline HCl Ophthalmic Solution
Afrin No Drip Severe Congestion Nasal Spray
Visine Maximum Redness Relief Formula
All Clear Ophthalmic Solution
Afrin No Drip Sinus Nasal Spray
Walgreens Redness Reliever Advanced Eye Ophthalmic Solution
All Clear AR Maximum Strength Ophthalmic Solution
Afrin No Drip Sinus Extra Moisturizing Nasal Spray
Tyzine Nasal Spray
Opcon-A Ophthalmic Solution
Afrin Original Nasal Spray
GNP Original Eye Drops
Naphcon A Ophthalmic Solution
Afrin Severe Congestion Nasal Spray
Opti-clear Ophthalmic Solution
Walgreens Eye Allergy Relief Drops
Dristan 12 Hour Nasal Spray
Tetrahydrozoline HCl Ophthalmic Solution
Equaline 12 Hour Nasal Spray
Today’s Health Original Eye Drops
Equaline 12 Hour Extra Moisturizing Nasal Spray
Leader Eye Drops Regular Formula Ophthalmic Solution
Equate Nasal Spray
GNP 12 Hour Nasal Spray
GNP 12 Hour No Drip Nasal Spray
GoodSense 12 Hour Nasal Spray
Leader 12 Hour Nasal Spray
Maximum Strength Nasal Decongestant Nasal Spray
Mucinex Full Force Nasal Spray
Mucinex Moisture Nasal Spray
Nasal Relief Spray
Neo-Synephrine 12 Hour Nasal Spray
Publix Nasal Spray
Select Brand Nasal Spray
Sinex Nasal Spray
Sudafed OM Nasal Spray
Today’s Health Nasal Relief Nasal Spray
Tope Care 12 Hour Nasal Spray
Walgreens Anefrin Nasal Spray
SOURCES:FDA news release.FDA web site.CPSC web site.CPSC: "Proposed PPPA Rule Requiring Child-Resistant Packaging for Imidazolines."
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